Diving straight into reverse-engineering iOS apps can be daunting and time-consuming. While wading into the binary can pay off greatly in the long run, it's also useful to start off with the easy wins, especially when you have limited time and resources. One such easy win is hunting login credentials and API keys in iOS applications.

Most iOS applications use third-party APIs and SDKs such as Twitter, Amazon Web Services, and so on. Interacting with these APIs require API keys which are used (and thus stored) in the app itself. A careless developer could easily leak keys with too many privileges or keys that were never meant to be stored on the client-side in the first place.

What makes finding them an easy win? As described by top iOS developer Mattt Thompson:

There’s no way to secure secrets stored on the client. Once someone can run your software on their own device, it’s game over.

And maintaining a secure, closed communications channel between client and server incurs an immense amount of operational complexity — assuming it’s possible in the first place.

He also tells us that:

Another paper published in 2018 found SDK credential misuse in 68 out of a sample of 100 popular iOS apps. (Wen, Li, Zhang, & Gu, 2018)

Until APIs and developers come round to the fact that client secrets are insecure by design, there will always be these low-hanging vulnerabilities in iOS apps.


Updated April 19, 2020: – Install OpenSSH through Cydia (ramsexy) – Checkra1n now supports Linux (inhibitor181) – Use a USB Type-A cable instead of Type-C (c0rv4x)

Updated April 26, 2020: – Linux-specific instructions (inhibitor181)

Updated August 14, 2020: – Burp TLS v1.3 configuration


I wanted to get into mobile app pentesting. While it's relatively easy to get started on Android, it's harder to do so with iOS. For example, while Android has Android Virtual Device and a host of other third-party emulators, iOS only has a Xcode's iOS Simulator, which mimics the software environment of an iPhone and not the hardware. As such, iOS app pentesting requires an actual OS device.

Moreover, it's a major hassle to do even basic things like bypassing SSL certificate pinning. Portswigger's Burp Suite Mobile Assistant needs to be installed onto a jailbroken device and only works on iOS 9 and below.

For the longest time, iOS pentesting guides recommended buying an old iPhone with deprecated iOS versions off eBay. More recent efforts like Yogendra Jaiswal's excellent guide are based on the Unc0ver jailbreak, which works on iOS 11.0-12.4. If you don't have an iDevice in that range, you're out of luck.

Fortunately, with the release off the checkra1n jailbreak, A5-A11 iPhone, iPad and iPods on the latest iOS can now be jailbroken. Many iOS app pentesting tools, having lain dormant during the long winter of jailbreaking, are now catching up and new tools are also being released.

As such, I'm writing quickstart guide for iOS app pentesting on modern devices with the checkra1n jailbreak and consolidating different tools' setup guides in one place. I will follow up with a post on bugs I've found on iOS apps using the tools installed here.


Enter your email to subscribe to updates.